Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a valuable chemical with a wide range of applications. A recent trend in H2O2 production focuses on electrochemical reduction of oxygen, which represents an environmentally friendly method for on-site H2O2 generation. To realize highly efficient practical-scale electrosynthesis of H2O2, catalytic materials design and electrochemical reactor engineering play equally important roles and must be carefully investigated. A highly active catalyst with superior selectivity and stability is the foundation for efficient H2O2 production, and well-configured reactors are important to realize practical deployment of on-site H2O2 production in large scales. In this review, an overview of the recent progress (over the past 3 years) in electrochemical production of H2O2 is presented, with an emphasis on the development of selective catalysts, especially the atomic tuning of carbon-based catalysts and single-atom catalysts, as well as electrode engineering and electrochemical cell design.